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"Placidi Valentiniani Felices"


            Our unit is that of the Placidi Valentiniani Felices (“The Achievers of Placidus Valentinianus”), an auxilia palatina unit serving under Flavius Aetius in the 5th century. Their existence began, according to A.H.M. Jones, in 419 celebrating the birth of the caesar Flavius Placidus Valentinianus III, or Valentinian III. It is likely that the Visigothic bucellarii of his mother, Aelia Galla Placidia, were converted into a unit of  auxilia palatina at this time, and the Notitia Dignitatum lists them being edited in as the "Placidi Valentiniaci Felices." It is unknown what became of them after this, as there are no further inscriptions mentioning them.


             The Placidi Valentiniani were likely guard units, or bucellarii, of the imperial family. Because it was raised from the guard of Placidia, it is likely they were mostly Gothic, and the Gothic names of Aetius' bodyguards and generals could support that. Bucellarii would have been the best equipped soldiers in the empire, and that they were graded as an auxilia palatina unit confirms their quality. Palatinae are thought to have been the best equipped and trained troops of the era, forming the backbone of the army Aetius used to defend the empire.


            The Valentiniani probably escorted Galla Placidia and Valentinian III out of Italy and to Constantinopolis, returning in 425 upon his ascension to the Western Roman throne. In this era they likely continued to guard Galla Placidia, traveling back and forth between Rome and Ravenna in the 5th century, and are likely the inspiration for the soldiers of the Santa Maggiore mosaics, finished in 431. However, due to declining manpower reserves and the constant military cuts, at some point the Valentiniani were probably placed in the Roman field army. Jordanes mentions "olibrones" at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, whose description very well matches that of bucellarii. It is indeed possible that the Placidi Valentiniani Felices fought at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields.


The unit was likely disbanded upon Aetius' death, but it is possible they may have gone on to serve under Majorian, who was ordered to win over Aetius's Roman army and bucellarii after his assassination. If they were indeed the guards of Valentinian III, then they may have been the soldiers who "did not lift a finger" to save the dying emperor, showing their loyalty to the former magister militum.


Timeline of the Fall of Rome



  • 284 - Last known evidence of Legio VI Ferrata from a fort found in Adrou (Udruh), Jordan, places them there under the reign of Diocletian to be integrated into the Limes Arabicus.
  • 297 - First settlement of the Frisii in the Roman Empire.
  • 312 - Beginning of the late Roman military reforms with the establishment of the ripenses and riparienses garrisons on the Rhine and Danube.
  • 353 - First settlement of the Salian Franks in Toxandria.
  • 360 - The Huna, or Huns, begin their migration westwards due to a megadrought in Central Asia, pushing Oghur Turkish groups ahead of them into the Goths and Alans and beginning the migration period.
  • 374 - According to Movses Khorenats'i, large groups of Huns first arrive in the Volga-Don region and the Caucasus around this time.
  • 376 - The Tervingi, under migratory pressure, are allowed to enter the empire as Roman foederati, but incompetent and corrupt officials cause them to revolt. The Grethungi enter the empire on their own accord and join the revolt.
  • 377 - The Thracian field army fights to a stalemate at the Battle of Ad Salices.
  • 378 - Significant portions of the Eastern Roman Thracian and First Praesental army are destroyed by the Tervingi and Grethungi Goths at the Battle of Adrianopolis. Valens is slain in or after the battle with his troops. A second wave of Hunnic migration into the Volga-Don and Caucasus occurs at this time.
  • 379 - Theodosius I becomes Emperor and campaigns against the Goths in the Balkans.
  • 382 - Conclusion of the Gothic War with a Roman treaty: the Goths are settled in Thrace north of the Haemus mountains.
  • 391 - Alaric gains command of the Balkans Goths. Flavius Aetius is born in Durostorum on the Danube.
  • 394 - Battle of the River Frigidus: the Western Praesental Army is defeated by the Eastern army of Theodosius and their Gothic allies under Alaric.
  • 395 - Theodosius Dies, the magister peditum Stilicho becomes regent in the West. Alaric revolts in Illyricum and Stilicho is unable to subdue him. The Huns launch a massive invasion across the Caucasus and raid Armenia, western Iran, eastern Anatolia, and even into Syria.
  • 397 - Stilicho fails to subdue Alaric in Greece.
  • 398 - Gildo revolts in Africa, but is defeated by 5000 men sent under Stilicho. It is likely Gaudentius Aetius becomes comes africae after this point. The revolt of the Goths in Greece ends and they are resettled in Dalmatia.
  • 399 - The usurper Eutropius is defeated.
  • 400 - The Goth Gainas is defeated in the East after he sacks Constantinopolis.
  • 401 - Alaric invades Italy. Around this time Aetius is enrolled as a protector domesticus, earmarked for future office.
  • 402 - Stilicho musters 30 Roman Legions and his Alan allies under Saul to fight the Battle of Pollentia and Battle of Verona. Both result in Alaric's defeat by Stilicho, but Alaric is granted the title magister militum per illyrias to prepare for Stilicho's invasion of the East.
  • 405 - Radagasius invades Pannonia and Noricum, then marches into Italy. Flavius Aetius becomes tribunis praetoriani partis militaris after having served in the protectores domestici for several years, and is sent to Alaric as a hostage.
  • 406 - Radagasius is defeated and his Goths incorporated into the western army or sold as slaves. Alaric is sent to Epirus Nova to prepare for the eastern invasion. The Vandals, Alans, and Suebes cross the Rhine after years of fleeing from Hunnic pressure.
  • 407 - Constantine III invades Gaul after succeeding another British usurper, and secures the Gallic and Spanish provinces. Stilicho orders Alaric to withdraw to Pannonia.
  • 408 - Stilicho is executed by Honorius, who then orders Gothic families to be captured or killed. Goths in the army revolt and join Alaric, forming the Visigoths. Alaric returns Flavius Aetius as a sign of good faith, who then goes to the court of Uldin the Hun. Olympius becomes magister peditum. Alaric then besieges Rome to attempt to secure a higher military post, Honorius refuses and Alaric returns to Illyricum.
  • 409 - Gerontius revolts and installs Maximus as usurper. He invites the Vandals, Alans, and Suebes into Spain. The Romans send 6000 men from the Dalmatian field army to reinforce Rome, but Alaric ambushes and destroys them en route. Alaric promotes Priscus Attalus as Emperor and lays siege to Rome a second time, but withdraws when negotiations open back up. 4000 men are sent to Ravenna to reinforce the city from the East.
  • 410 - Alaric deposes Attalus and lays siege to Rome a third time. Rome is sacked for 3 days, the old senate house is burned and minor looting takes place, but otherwise there is no significant devastation. Alaric travels to southern Italy and dies of fever while planning to invade Africa. The "Rescript of Honorius" is issued, telling the people of Bruttium to fend for themselves against the Goths in the area. This is often misinterpreted as the abandoning of Britainnia by the Romans, when in reality this was the year they ended their support of Constantine III and returned to Roman Rule.
  • 411 - Flavius Constantius III becomes magister utriusque militiae - the first to use the title. Uldin the Hun dies and is succeeded by Charaton. Jovinius is raised by the Alans of Goar and the Burgundians of Gundicar in Worms as Emperor. Constantius III defeats Constantine III and the comes hispenias Gerontius at Arelate, before moving back to Italy to force the Visigoths out, who head into Gaul in 412.
  • 413 - Athaulf defeats Jovinius in Gaul and the Alans of Goar join him. Qaraton secures his position as ruler of the Huns in Dacia.
  • 414 - The Alans of Goar defect to the Romans and break the Visigothic siege of Bazas. Constantius III uses this to his advantage to go on the offensive against the Goths, who had again raised Priscus Attalus as usurper. He outmaneuvers them and cuts off their supply routes in south Gaul, forcing them to retreat into Spain.
  • 416 - Visigoths formally settled in Aquitaine after successful campaigns against them by Constantius III.
  • 417 - Revolt in Gaul, it is believed Gaudentius Aetius is killed here, prompting Flavius Aetius to return from the court of Charaton.
  • 418 - The Gothic king Wallia is killed in Spain along with Attaces, king of the Alans, while in Roman service. The Alans of Attaces are destroyed, along with the Silingi Vandals, and both fall under Gunderic's rule.
  • 419 - Valentinan III is born after Galla Placidia married Constantius III. The Placidi Valentiniani Felices are created from her Gothic bodyguard to celebrate the occasion.
  • 421 - Constantius III becomes co-emperor, but dies shortly afterwards. Castinus is made comes et magister utriusque militiae.
  • 422 - Castinus sets against Vandals in Spain without the support of Bonifacius, and is defeated. Galla Placidia and Valentinian III move to Constantinople with the Valentiniani.
  • 423 - Honorius dies. Castinus names Ioannes emperor of the West, Flavius Aetius casts his lot with the usurper and is named cura palatii, or commander of the Palace guard. Bonifacius remains loyal to the East and cuts off the grain supply. Aetius is probably married to Carpilio's daughter around this time.
  • 424 - Flavius Aetius leaves to seek Hunnic support for Ioannes. The Eastern Emperor, Theodosius II, launches a campaign to install Valentinian III as Emperor in Ravenna. Licinia Eudoxia and Valentinian III are betrothed.
  • 425 - Candidianus, Ardaburius, and Aspar invade the west, but the fleet is destroyed in a storm and Ardaburius is captured. Aspar defeats Ioannes and takes Ravenna, rescuing Ardaburius and placing Valentinian III on the throne under Theodosius II's regency. Three days after Ioannes is executed, Flavius Aetius arrives with the Hunnic Army, throwing a wrench in Theodosius' plans. After a series of skirmishes the Huns are paid off and Aetius is made comes et magister militum per gallias. The eastern magister officorum Helion coronates Valentinian III in Rome on October 23rd. Flavius Constantius Felix becomes the comes et magister utriusque militiae. The Vandals capture Carthago Spartaria and sack Hispalis.
  • 426 - Flavius Aetius defeats the Visigoths under their general Anaulf besieging Arelate, and establishes a treaty in which Sigisvult enters Roman service as comes foederatorum. The Vandals occupy Hispalis and raid Mauretania Tingitania.
  • 427 - Felix accuses Boniface of planning to usurp, and sends the Roman commander Darius and the Visigothic commander Sigisvult to fight Bonifacius in Africa. They are defeated, and Darius and Sigisvult attempt to negotiate with Bonifacius. At this point Charaton dies, and a period of discord ensues in the Hunnic dominion.
  • 428 - Flavius Aetius defeats the Salian Franks of Chlodio and recaptures Colonia Agrippina and Augusta Treverorum. Flavius Constantius Felix repels Hunnic raiders in Pannonia.
  • 429 - Bonifacius is forgiven after the treachery is shown to be Felix' disgrace. Flavius Aetius is made comes et magister utriusque militiae iunior, the first to hold the title. The Vandals invade Mauretania and sack Altava. Sigisvult and Bonifacius join forces but are defeated by Gaiseric, and Darius brokers a truce with the Vandals. The Suebes plunder the Vandal settlements in Lusitania. Germanus of Auxerre travels to Britannia and successfully defeats the Scotti and Picti at the Battle of Mold, reaffirming loose Roman control over the province. At this time Rua and Octar become joint kings of the Huns.
  • 430 - Anaolsus, a Visigothic noble, besieges Arelate but is destroyed by Aetius. Aetius returns to Ravenna and accuses Felix of plotting against him, which he likely was; the army hangs Felix and his wife. Aetius then campaigns with his pangeyricist, Merobaudes, and Eparchius Avitus against the Iuthungi in Noricum and Raetia and defeats them. The Vandals break the truce and defeat Sigisvult and Bonifacius, who are then besieged in Hippo Regius. St. Augustine dies during the siege. Octar the Hun is killed fighting the Burgundians on the Neccar River, resulting in Rua becoming sole ruler of the Huns.
  • 431 - The Vandals lift the siege of Hippo Regius, allowing the Romans to retreat, and sack it afterwards. Aetius campaigns against and defeats the Bacaudae (called "Nori") in Noricum. The Suebes attack Gallaecia. The Franks capture Tournacum and Cambriacum. Aspar is sent with an army to North Africa.
  • 432 - Aetius is made Consul, and defeats the Franks on the Rhine. Boniface and Aspar, the Eastern magister militum praesentalis, are defeated by the Vandals. Bonifacius returns to Italy and is made comes et magister utriusque militiae Senior. Galla Placidia plots to turn Bonifacius on Aetius, and Aetius is defeated at the Battle of Ariminium. Bonifacius dies and his son Sebastianus succeeds him, who then tries to have the retired Aetius killed. Aetius flees to the Huns.
  • 433 - Aetius returns with a Hunnic retainer and drives Sebastianus out, who was unpopular with the army. He is made comes et magister utriusque militiae senior and marries Bonifacius' widow, Pelagia, allegedly by her former husband's request. Aetius becomes regent and manager of the Western Roman Empire.
  • 435 - Aspar checks the Vandals and a treaty is agreed upon, where they receive Mauretania Sitifensis and parts of Numidia. Aetius is named magnificus vir parens patriciusque noster. A statue of Merobaudes erected in the Forum of Trajan for his literary talent. Aetius, with his commander Eparchius Avitus, subdues a revolt of the Burgundii.
  • 436Litorius is comes et magister militum per gallias and travels with Merobaudes to Aremorica, where he defeats the Bacaudae under Tibatto. The Burgundians revolt again, likely in unison with the Visigoths, who lay siege to Narbona. Aetius uses his Hun foederati to utterly defeat the Burgundians, allegedly slaying 20,000 and killing their king Gundicar, forming the basis of the Nibelungenlied.
  • 437 - Litorius catches the besiegers by surprise and defeats the Visigoths at Narbona. Eparchius Avitus defeats a band of renegade Hunnic foederati. Aetius returns and takes command of the Gallic army. The Franks capture Colonia Agrippina and Augusta Treverorum. Licinia Eudoxia and Valentinian III are married in Constantinople. Aetius is consul for the second time. Statue of Aetius erected in the Forum of Trajan.
  • 438 - Aetius defeats the Visigoths at the Battle of Mons Colubrarius, where they were unable to draw up a battle line and 8000 of them are reputedly slain. Litorius pursues the Visigoths into Aquitaine and lays siege to Tolosa. The Codex Theodosianus is published and implemented in the East, and Aetius presides over its adoption in the West. The Suebes are defeated in Spain by an unknown commander, probably the comes hispenias Censorius, and he establishes a new foedus.
  • 439 - Litorius is defeated in battle after laying siege to Tolosa, and is paraded through the streets before being executed. The Visigothic comes foederatorum Vertericus gains control of the situation, and Aetius returns to Gaul and soundly defeats the Visigoths in a night attack on their camp. The Visigothic war ends with a favorable treaty concluded by Avitus. Emerita Augusta is sacked by the Suebes. Gaiseric and his retainer walk into Carthage on October 19th and sack the city, resulting in the loss of the richest provinces of Africa. Rua the Hun dies, and Attila and Bleda come to power and begin securing the Hunnic state, signing a treaty with Aetius that hands over Pannonia Secunda and making Attila honorary magister militum. Aetius' son Carpillo travels to the Dacian region with the secretary Constantius and ambassador Cassiodorus to join the court of the Huns. Beginning of the significant degeneration of the Western Roman Empire. 
  • 440 - The right to bear arms, revoked in 386 AD, is restored under Valentinian III, who passes further laws in an attempt to secure funding for the army and maintain the treasury. The Vandals besiege Panormus and raid Bruttium but they retreat and the party in Bruttium is defeated by the local Vigilies. Aetius and the comes et magister utriusque militiae iunior Sigisvult prepare for a campaign against the Vandals in Africa. The Suebes capture Mertola. Flavius Gaudentius is born and Merobaudes issues a pangeyric. The Alans under Sambida are settled in deserted lands in Valence and Auvergne.
  • 441 - Astyrius is made comes hispenias and defeats the Bacaudae in Tarraconensis. The Africa campaign is called off when the eastern Roman navy and army are forced to withdraw due to Hunnic pressure. The Sassanid Persians also declare war on the East. Attila annihilates the Moesian field army.
  • 442 - The Treaty of 442 is signed giving the Vandals Numidia, Africa Proconsularis, and Byzacena, and they become the first independent kingdom in the Roman Empire. Tripolitania remains under Roman control until 455. The three Mauretanias are returned to Roman control and remain under loose Roman rule until the 7th or 8th century. Settlement of the Alans of Goar on the Loire near Aurelianum and down the river to Britanny, prompting a Bacaudic revolt in Aremorica, which is promptly subdued with the help of Germanus of Auxerre. The novella valentinani issues tax cuts and relief for African landowners.
  • 443 - Burgundian remnants are settled under Roman control in Sapaudia, the treaty likely results in Ricimer entering Roman service as comes foederatorum. Merobaudes becomes comes hispenias, and defeats the Bacaudae of Aracellitanus, but is recalled due to "jealousy in the court." Chlodio captures Atrebatum around this time.
  • 444 - Bleda dies and Attila becomes sole ruler of the Huns. The siliquaticum is levied in the west to pay the army. Chlodio lays siege to Turonium and Majorian defends the city.
  • 445 - Aetius' arrival prompts the lifting of the siege of Turonium and the Franks retreat north. Aetius ambushes the Franks at Vicus Helena with Majorian, likely the comes et magister militum per gallias. The west regains the Rhine frontier and reduces the Franks to federate status. The Vandals attack Portus Turonum in Gallaecia in preparation for a campaign against the Suebes. Statue of Aetius erected in the atrium libertatas. The Eastern Roman Empire increases the Limitanei garrisons and fortifies the Danube frontier against another Hunnic war.
  • 446 - Aetius consul for the Third time. Merobaudes issues another pangeyric, and Vitus is sent to Spain and appointed magister militum of that region. Aetius is granted a victory procession in the streets of Rome - something very rare in the Late Roman era, in fact this is the last recorded victory procession in the West. Vitus is defeated by Rechila in Spain after the Gothic foederati rout. The restoration of Roman control in north Gaul prompts the letter known as the Groans of the Britons, but Aetius is unable to send troops to the province. Hunnic raids into Scythia Minor, allegedly unable to be controlled by Attila, prompt the beginning of another Hunnic war.
  • 447 - Second Hunnic invasion of the Balkans. The Theodosian walls are struck by an earthquake but the city populace and nobility rapidly moves to have them repaired. It is likely the middle wall was added at this point. Attila defeats the Thracian, First, and Second Praesental field armies under Arnegisclus at the Battle of the River Utus and devastates the Balkans after obliterating the Danubian limes. He annihalates the defeated field armies on the Chersonesus in modern Turkey. The Huns contract dysentery and withdraw.
  • 448 - The East is forced into a treaty with the Huns with a tribute of 2100 pounds of gold and a buffer zone South of the Danube is established, as well as around 7000 pounds owed in back payments. Rechila attacks Gallaecia and dies that year. Eudoxius revolts in Aremorica, but is put down by Goar and Aetius. Sigisvult is made Patricius by Aetius. Goar dies and Sangiban succeeds him as leader of the Alans in Aurelianum.
  • 449 - Astyrius is made consul. Firminus becomes praefectus praetorio per gallias. Theodoric has his daughter married to Rechiarius of the Suebes. Rechiarius defeats the Basques in northern Tarraconensis. Basilius revolts in Tyrassio in Spain and sacks Ilerdensus with the help of the Suebes. Priscus travels to the court of Attila and records much of what we know about the Huns. Chlodio dies and his state is divided between supporters of the younger and older brother, Merovech and Childeric. Aetius adopts the younger and the other seeks support from Attila, becoming King of the Thoringi.
  • 450 - Honoria has an affair with Eugenius, who is then executed. Honoria sends a plea for political help to the honorary magister militum Attila. Theodosius II dies and the general Marcian ascends to the throne. Tonatius Ferreolus becomes praefectus praetorio per gallias and prepares for a possible Hunnic war.
  • 451 - Attila invades Gaul in a war over the Frankish succession, sacking Mettis, Augusta Treverorum, Argentoratum, Borbetomagus, Durocortorum, and ravaging the countryside of many other cities. He lays siege to Aurelianum some time in May. Avitus persuades the Goths and Aremoricans to join Aetius' army, which consists of supporters of the younger Frankish king, Burgundian federates, the Alans of Sambida and Sangiban, likely the Frisii and other Saxons, the Litauians, and others. Attila lifts the siege of Aurelianum on June 14th after hearing word of Aetius' advance. They meet on a ridge called Montgueux on the Catalaunian Fields on June 20th for battle, just south-west of Troyes. The Romans, Alans, and the Visigoths under Thorismund take the ridge, but Theodoric the Visigoth is slain by Andag the Ostrogoth in the battle, prompting the Goths to rout. The Alans and Thorismund then charge the collapsing Hunnic center. Both battle lines fall into disarray, and nightfall ends the engagement, with neither side capable of continuing combat or claiming victory. Attila retreats from Gaul and Merovech is secured as king of the Salian Franks. The Suebes ravage most of Spain, and Southern Italy experiences famine.
  • 452 - Attila invades again, devastating Noricum Mediterrane and attacks Italy. Aquileia, defended heavily due to foresight by Aetius, is sacked but seriously hampers the Hunnic invasion force. Flavius Aetius is unable to fight Attila but holes up at a crossroads in the Apennines, preventing Attila from attacking Rome or Ravenna. The remnants of the Eastern army in the Balkans under Marcian and the Dux Aetius attack the Hunnic Homeland. Famine, disease, and the attack by the East force Attila to withdraw. Attila meets Pope Leo, Gennadius Avienus, and Trygetius to ransom captives and discuss treaty terms before withdrawing. Pelagia maneuvers to have Aetius' son Gaudentius replace Majorian's betrothal to Placidia, and Majorian is forced to retire. Agrippinus is promoted to comes et magister militum per gallias in his place. The Alans defeat Odovacar and the Scirii, who had been left behind after the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields.
  • 453 - Attila the Hun dies from cirrhosis of the liver. Thorismund attacks and defeats the Alans of Sambida and Sangiban. Thorismund lays siege to Arelate and Aetius is unable to risk engaging him. Ferreolus persuades Thorismund to leave, he is later killed and Theodoric II returns to amicable relations with the Empire. Frederic, the brother of Thorismund, becomes honorary magister militum, and he and Aetius campaign in Spain against the Suebes and Bacaudae, beginning Aetius' plan to retake Africa which will be continued under Avitus and Majorian. The Suebes agree to cede Carthagenensis back to the Romans for peace.
  • 454 - Aetius consul for the Fourth time. Battle of the Nedao River: Hunnic Empire is broken up by the successful revolt of its vassal the Gepids under Ardaric. This prompts most of the other germanic nations to revolt as well, causing problems on the Danube for Aetius. Valentinian III, seeking to become an active emperor, plots to assassinate Aetius with the help of his chamberlain, Heraclius. On the 21st of September, Aetius is stabbed to death by Valentinian III himself. Terminal degeneration of the Western Empire is triggered by his death. Majorian is reinstated and promoted to comes domesticorum. The comes dalmatae Marcellinus and the remanants of Aetius' army form an independent rump state. First records of St. Severinus at this time. Comagenis is sacked by revolting foederati of Aetius, Favianis is successfully defended against raiders by the tribunis cohortis Mamertinus in Noricum. 
  • 455 - Thraustila, Optila and other members of Aetius' bucellarii seek revenge, after being paid by Petronius Maximus, and kill Valentinian III. No guard steps up to save him, as the army was loyal to Aetius. The Placidi Valentiniani Felices are probably disbanded at this point. Brief reign of Petronius Maximus, who is stoned fleeing Rome. The army lets the Vandals into Rome, who sack the city. Eudoxia, Pelagia, Eudocia, and Aetius' son Gaudentius are captured by the Vandals and taken to Africa. Gaiseric takes Tripolitania, the Balearic Islands, and raids Corsica and Sardinia. The Goths proclaim Avitus emperor. The dux belgicae secundae Aegidius cuts his support of the West with Avitus' proclamation. Remistus becomes comes et magister utriusque militiae.
  • 456 - Theodoric II defeats the Suebes, establishing the Visigothic Kingdom around this time. The comes Ricimer defeats the Vandals at Agrigentum and at sea near Corsica, retaking the island. The Italian aristocracy stop supporting Avitus, and Majorian, with Ricimer's support, kill Remistus and take Ravenna, and then defeat Avitus at Placentia.
  • 457 - Leo I appoints Majorian comes et magister utriusque militiae senior and Patricius, and Ricimer comes et magister utriusque militiae iunior. Majorian sends the comes Burcus against a force of 900 Alemanni invading italy, who defeats them. The victory is celebrated as Majorian's and he is proclaimed Emperor, with Ricimer becoming comes et Magister utriusque militiae senior, and Nepotianus the Iunior. Aegidius supports his colleague Majoran as Emperor and rejoins the Empire, and in return replaces Agrippinus as comes et magister militum per gallias. Merovech dies and Childeric becomes king of the Franks, with Odovacar falling under his leadership in Gaul.
  • 458 - Majorian defeats the Vandals at Sinuessa, restores the right to bear arms once more, and passes a law against sedition at chariot races. He rebuilds the fleets at Misenum and Ravenna. Majorian and Nepotianus defeat the Visigoths at Arelate, forcing them to abandon their conquests in Tarraconensis and return to Federate status. Majorian advanced up the Rhone and retakes Lugdunum, reducing the Burgundians to federate status, and grants the city its desired tax remission.
  • 459 - Sidonius Apollinaris delivers his Pangeyric on Majorian. Nepotianus and the Gothic comes foederatorum Suneric campaign in Spain
  • 460 - Nepotianus and Suneric defeat the Suebes at Lucus Augusti, reducing them to federate status. Majorian marches through Novempopulana and into Spain, causing serious concern for Gaiseric, who devastates Roman Mauretania in preparation for the war. Majorian arrives at Cartago Spartaria, and Gaiseric bribes the local population to burn Majorian's fleet docked at Portus Illicitanus, ending Majorian's campaign.
  • 461 - Ricimer orders the execution of Majoran, likely due to conflicting Burgundian and Roman intrests and the loss of Italic aristocratic support, and appoints Libius Severus as Emperor. Aegidius, Nepotianus, and Marcellinus refuse to support the empire, and Agrippinus is once again made comes et magister militum per gallias.
  • 462 - Agrippinus bribes the Visigoths with the city of Narbona to attack Aegidius, who with the help of Childeric defeats them on the Loire.
  • 464 - Aegidius dies of a plague after sending an envoy to the Vandals, leaving his son Syagrius with his command.
  • 465 - The Visigoths attack north Roman Gaul again, but are defeated by the comes tractus aremoriciani Paulus of Adecavus with the help of Childeric and Odovacar. However, they all subsequently turn on each other over the loot, resulting in Childeric defeating Odovacar and the Scirii and chasing them to the mouth of the Loire, whence from there they retreat back to the bend of the Danube. The "Domain of Soissons" under Syagrius becomes a quintessential Frankish vassal.
  • 468 - Anthemius attempts a reconquest of Africa with the East, and Marcellinus prepares to support them by moving his forces to Sicily. Gaiseric defeats the massive Eastern Fleet with grain ships set on fire after they choose to sail straight to Carthage, rather than land the army, at the Battle of Cape Bon. Ricimer orders the death of Marcellinus and Anthemius.
  • 472 - Ricimer is poisoned, and the restored Burgundian kingdom appoints Gundobad as comes et magister utriusque militiae.
  • 473 - Gundobad steps down to become King of the Burgundians.
  • 474 - Julius Nepos, successor to Marcellinus and son of Nepotianus, becomes the last legitimate Roman Emperor. He appoints Ecdicius Avitus as comes et magister utriusque militiae, and prepares for a campaign against the Goths.
  • 475 - Orestes, Aetius' former spy in the Hunnic court, becomes comes et magister utriusque militiae as appointed by Nepos, but rebels and appoints Romulus Augustulus as Emperor.
  • 476 - Orestes refuses the demands of Scirian foederati under the Odovacar and is killed. Romulus Augustulus is deposed and Kingdom of Italy is formed. The limitanei at Batavis receive news of the fall of the Western Empire, and maintain their bastion in the city, defeating the raiding Alamanni. Lauriacum is besieged but Severinus' diplomacy lifts the siege, and it subsequently comes under the kingdom of the Rugii.
  • 477 - Batavis is sacked.
  • 480 - Odovacar has Nepos killed in Illyricum, which then joins the Kingdom of Italy.
  • 486 - The Battle of Augusta Suessionem, Syagrius is defeated by Clovis after an attempt at independence.
  • 487 - Augusta Suessionem is sacked and becomes part of the Frankish Kingdom. Syagrius flees to the Goths, who promptly return him to Clovis where he is executed.
  • 490 - Clovis absorbs the former Limitanei garrisons on the Rhine, essentially formalizing their pseudonym of "Ripuarian Franks" and incorporating them into the new Merovingian Frankish Kingdom.
  • 493 - Theodoric the Great is sent by the East to Italy and establishes the Ostrogothic Kingdom at Ravenna after defeating Odoacer.
  • 533 - The Eastern Empire under Justinian the Great reconquers Africa, Mauretania is absorbed into the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 557 - The Kutrigur and Utigur Huns, now also called Bulgars, are conquered by the Avars, ending the Hunnic Empire. The future Bulgars of Kubrat and Asparuch will be descendants of the Huna, before they are Slavicized.
  • 638 - After years of fighting the Sassanids and Arabs, the Late Roman Army is defeated at Yarmouk in 636 and by 638 is transformed into the Thematic army.
  • 1071 - Due to unreliable mercenaries and internal conflict with the Roman administration, the Roman army is defeated by the Turks at Manitzikert, ending the Thematic army.
  • 1204 - Constantinople is finally sacked by an outside force, Capetian France and the Venetians, and the Romans form a rump state in Nicaea.
  • 1261 - End of discontinuity of the Roman state as they retake Constantinople and restore the Imperial government.
  • 1453 - The Roman Empire falls to the Ottoman Turks after a several month siege, inflicting heavy losses to the attackers thanks to the walls built by Theodosius II. Constantine XI and his army, along with their Latinikon allies, subsequently fight to the death.
  • 2001 - Legio VI Ferrata Fidelis Constans is re-established, Castra Romana I is held.
  • 2013 - The Placidi Valentiniani Felices are re-established. Castra Romana XII is held.